Preheat oven to 375ºF. Butter an 11-by-7-inch glass baking dish.
Whisk cornmeal, flour, baking powder, baking soda, 1¼ teaspoons salt, ¼ teaspoon pepper, and cayenne, if desired, in a large bowl. In a separate bowl, whisk eggs, buttermilk, and honey until combined. Pour buttermilk mixture into cornmeal mixture and stir until nearly combined. Fold in ¾ cup cheese. Spread batter in baking dish.
Melt 2 tablespoons butter in a large skillet over medium heat. Add tomato slices, sprinkle with remaining ¼ teaspoon each salt and pepper, and cook, undisturbed, until tomatoes begin to soften, 1 to 2 minutes. Carefully turn tomatoes with tongs and cook 1 minute more. Transfer to baking dish, arranging on top of batter. Pour any juices from skillet over tomatoes. Sprinkle with 2 tablespoons cheese, if desired.
Bake until cornbread is golden and a toothpick inserted in center comes out clean, about 30 minutes. Let cool in baking dish on a wire rack for at least 10 minutes before serving.