This dish is best when cooked a few hours (or even a day) in advance. Rewarm gently on the stove before eating.
Heat oil in a large, deep skillet over medium heat. Add fennel, carrots, and shallots and sprinkle with 1/2 teaspoon of the salt. Cook, stirring occasionally, until vegetables begin to caramelize, 5 to 8 minutes. Add chickpeas and garlic; cook, stirring occasionally, for 1 minute. Stir in harissa and oregano; cook, stirring occasionally, for 1 minute.
Add wine and stir to loosen any browned bits from bottom of skillet. Cook, stirring constantly, until wine has almost evaporated, 30 seconds to 1 minute. Stir in broth and bring to a boil. Reduce heat to low and simmer until carrots are tender and most of the liquid has evaporated, about 15 minutes. Stir in lemon juice; cook for 1 minute. Sprinkle with pepper and remaining 1/4 teaspoon salt.
Divide cooked couscous among 4 shallow bowls, if desired. Top with vegetables and sprinkle with parsley.