A Beginner's Guide to Cycling: The Best Bikes, Trails, Safety Tips, and More

Ready to turn your casual bicycle rides into a full-on fitness regimen? We’ve got a plan to get you rolling, with technique tips, must-have gear, safety advice, and more.
By Mallory Creveling
July 09, 2021
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Any way you spin it, biking stands out for its fitness perks, like enhancing your cardio, building strength, and offering a fun way to explore the outdoors. Science supports cycling's positive effects on your heart health, longevity, and mental well-being. Plus, it can introduce you to new people and offer a feeling of freedom, says Tara Parsons, New York–based cycling coach, Rapha ambassador, and a board vice president for Century Road Club Association, the largest racing club in the U.S. Bike sales boomed in 2020, thanks to the pandemic: According to the 2020 Year in Sport report from Strava—a tracking app for runners and cyclists—users clocked almost double the number of outdoor rides last year compared with 2019, and the number of bike trips booked by women spiked 72 percent. Whether you just got back on the bike or you've been a leisurely rider for years, it's time to transform your occasional spin into a consistent (and fun!) fitness routine. With this expert guide, you'll be prepared to hit the road or trail safely and efficiently. 

Turn Up the Burn 

Steadily build up to heart-pumping, mile-crushing sweat sessions with tips from Parsons and Frank Overton, Strava cycling coach and founder of FasCat Coaching in Boulder, Colorado. Consistency matters more than the order in which you add distance, days, or speed—you'll increase your endurance and strength as long as you keep at it. 

Build your distance gradually

Just like going from the couch to a 5K, you should steadily increase your distance on a bike. Your first goal might be 5 miles, two to three times a week. Then aim to add about 50 percent more miles each week. Your next goal might be a 7- or 7.5-mile ride twice a week. If you're already doing 20-mile rides, don't add more than 10 miles each week, Parsons says. Do these longer rides at a conversational pace, meaning you could chat with a friend as you go. A less intense pace will allow you to last longer, so you can enhance your endurance. 

Add more training days

If you're riding just one or two days a week right now, see if you can carve out time for another day—then another, Overton says. This will help you achieve results faster. Once you start training four days a week, Overton suggests a schedule of one hard day, one easy day, a rest day, and repeat. 

Challenge yourself with more difficult routes over time

If you're not sure where to start, a local bike shop can lead you in the right direction. Or, download cycling apps like Strava and Ride With GPS. Both allow you to explore existing routes or map your own before you head out. On Strava, you can also view "segments," or sections of popular paths, where you can compete with other users for fastest times and number of visits (only available with a Strava subscription, $5/month or $60/year). 

Do intervals

One day a week, incorporate speed, Parsons says. Do fartleks—a Swedish term that means "speed play"—and ride as hard as you can from one light post, tree, or block to the next (you'll need free range, so do this on a bike trail, open road, or in the park early in the morning!). And then take as much time as you need to fully recover before you repeat that all-out effort. You want to go as hard on the fifth or tenth interval as you did on the first, so give yourself plenty of time to cool down between pushes. For your first session, Parsons suggests doing five work/rest intervals (going hard, then going slow to let your heart rate come back down is one complete interval). Do those five intervals, then ride easy for 5 to 10 minutes, and repeat the five intervals again. You'll know you're going hard enough on the intervals if you can only get a word or two out. During recovery, you should get back to speaking full sentences. 

Start monitoring your heart rate

Once you've gotten comfortable with mileage and speed, grab a heart rate monitor, like the Wahoo Tickr X ($80; wahoofitness .com). This will give you more insight into how hard you're working. For those longer endurance rides, you want your heart rate to stay below about 70 percent of your max, Overton says. During interval sessions, you can push it above 70 percent of your max heart rate for the work periods. Then make sure it comes back below that mark during rest breaks. 

The Perfect Match 

To find the style of bike that's right for you, ask yourself a few questions: What are my goals for riding? Where will I be riding most often? Is there an environment I would be excited to explore—like the woods—if I could branch out? 

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    Specialized Allez

    For those looking to clock double-digit miles at a quick pace and all on pavement. Thin tires and a drop handlebar will help you pick up speed on the streets and offer a smooth ride.

    Check out the Specialized Allez ($1,000;, featuring an aluminum frame, carbon fork, and eight speeds for a sleek and steady ride.

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  • Mountain
    Liv Tempt 2

    For riding over branches and rocks as you pedal through wooded trails. Features like wider tires and extra tread keep you sturdy on rough terrain. You can opt for front suspension only (also called hardtail), which is usually at a lower price point and good for newbie MTB riders. Or go for full suspension (front and back) to enhance shock absorption and traction.

    Check out the Liv Tempt 2 ($650; liv-cycling .com), designed for women based on body dimensions and efficient riding positions data. You get front suspension; thick, nobbed trail tires; and easy gear switches. 

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  • Gravel
    Cannondale Topstone 4

    For those riding on a mix of surfaces who still want to go long and fast. This category of bikes has grown over the past few years, garnering lots of attention for its versatility. With a similar setup to a road bike at the handlebars, it has slightly wider tires to tackle more uneven terrain and often some extra tread, too.

    Check out the Cannondale Topstone 4 ($1,250; cannon, which will offer a smooth spin whether you're on gravel, pavement, or something in between, and will ride light and fast, even in inclement weather. 

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  • Hybrid
    Trek FX 3 Disc

    For commuting on city streets during the week and getting in a 10- to 20-mile fitness ride on the weekends. Unlike gravel and road bikes, hybrid bikes feature flat handlebars to promote an upright posture as you pedal, which can feel more comfortable but isn't as aerodynamic a position for long-distance riding. They also have wider tires to keep you steady over potholes or on gravel.

    Check out the Trek FX 3 Disc ($900; It has a flat handlebar, lightweight construction, puncture-resistant tires, and options to accessorize with racks, fenders, or a kickstand.

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Ride Safe 

Protect yourself on the roads or trails with this prep list. 


Get the Gear 

Accessories for a more comfortable, easier, and safer ride. 

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Accidents happen. The WaveCel structure on this headgear features a honeycomb-like design that acts like a "crumple zone," absorbing the force of a tough fall.

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This article originally appeared in the  July/August 2021 issue of Health Magazine. Click here to subscribe today!

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