Patients who experience sleep problems may fall asleep but then wake feeling as tired as they were the night before.
"When you wake up in the morning and you're exhausted, it's not just the physical feeling," says Lynne Matallana, a fibromyalgia patient who cofounded the National Fibromyalgia Association (NFA) and wrote The Complete Idiot's Guide to Fibromyalgia. "It's also a scary feeling that your body is not functioning right, and you are not able to do the things you want to do."
In 1975, pioneering researcher Harvey Moldofsky and his colleagues showed that healthy volunteers who had their sleep repeatedly disturbed developed fibromyalgia-like symptoms, including musculoskeletal aching in specific points around the body.
When asleep, healthy people pass through a cycle of progressively deeper stages of sleep, represented by fast alpha brain waves during the initial stages (indicating a half-awake state), and slow delta waves which are hallmarks of the later stages of deep sleep. But many fibromyalgia sufferers either don't reach deep sleep, or they don't stay there for long. Instead, alpha waves return, indicating to scientists that perhaps part of the brain is improperly active at that time. This phenomenon is known as alpha-delta sleep.
It is now known that crucial things happen to our bodies during deep sleep, including the release of most of the growth hormone that regenerates muscles, repairing all the tiny tears that we accumulate from daily activity.
Many researchers suggest that this lack of restorative sleep could be what's behind aching muscles, as well as the feeling of being totally worn out. (Growth hormone production declines with age, and this is accelerated in the majority of fibromyalgia cases.)