The kind of treatment that you and your doctors eventually settle on will have a lot to do with the following factors:
1. The parameters of your breast cancer (in your pathology report)
- Stage of breast cancer: How far has your cancer spread? If it has reached your lymph nodes, for instance, it generally means your nodes will have to be removed surgically and that you will be a candidate for chemotherapy and radiation.
- Grade of cancer: You cancer's grade describes how aggressive or quickly moving the cancer is.
- Whether your cancer tests positive for receptors to the hormones estrogen and/or progesterone: If your tumor is hormone receptor-positive and you are still having periods, your treatment is likely to include hormone therapy, usually the drug tamoxifen. If your tumor is positive and you are no longer having periods or are postmenopausal, you may take an aromatase inhibitor such as Femara, Aromasin, or Arimidex, which lower the amount of estrogen in the body.
- Whether your cancer tests positive for the HER2/neu gene: If positive, your treatment is likely to include the drug Herceptin (trastuzumab), which targets the protein that the HER2/neu gene makes.
If you need to choose between a lumpectomy and a mastectomy, for instance, you and your breast surgeon and/or oncologist may discuss with you how strongly you feel about keeping your breast(s).
"Some women say, 'I don't care; I need to get rid of the cancer, just take them off,'" says Karen R. Monaghan, LICSW, a clinical oncology social worker at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston. And indeed, there may be good reason to fear not only this tumor, but also a recurrence in this or the other breast. "But other women feel like it's a mutilation, an amputation," adds Monaghan. "It's a very individual reaction."
If you have a large tumor and a strong desire to keep your breast(s), you may have the option of trying neoadjuvant (before surgery) chemotherapy to shrink the tumor so that your surgeon can do a lumpectomy instead of a mastectomy. Lumpectomy followed by radiation may be another option. Research shows that most women with early stage breast cancer have the same long-term survival rate with that strategy as they do with a mastectomy.